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Past Exhibitions

Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

July 11, 2017 - October 13, 2017


The Woman Question

Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele and Oskar Kokoschka

March 14, 2017 - June 30, 2017


You Say You Want a Revolution

American Artists and the Communist Party

October 18, 2016 - March 4, 2017


Recent Acquisitions

July 12, 2016 - October 7, 2016


Ernst Ludwig Kirchner

Featuring Watercolors and Drawings from the Robert Lehman Collection

March 29, 2016 - July 1, 2016


Paula Modersohn-Becker

Art and Life

November 3, 2015 - March 19, 2016


Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

July 21, 2015 - October 16, 2015


Leonard Baskin

Wunderkammer

April 23, 2015 - July 2, 2015


Alternate Histories

Celebrating the 75th Anniversary of the Galerie St. Etienne

January 15, 2015 - April 11, 2015


Marie-Louise Motesiczky

The Mother Paintings

October 7, 2014 - December 24, 2014


Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

July 15, 2014 - September 26, 2014


Ilija/Mangelos

Father & Son, Inside & Out

April 24, 2014 - July 3, 2014


Modern Furies

The Lessons and Legacy of World War I

January 21, 2014 - April 12, 2014


Käthe Kollwitz

The Complete Print Cycles

October 8, 2013 - December 28, 2013


Recent Acquisitions

And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market

July 9, 2013 - September 27, 2013


Face Time

Self and Identity in Expressionist Portraiture

April 9, 2013 - June 28, 2013


Story Lines

Tracing the Narrative of "Outsider" Art

January 15, 2013 - March 30, 2013


Egon Schiele's Women

October 23, 2012 - December 28, 2012


Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

July 17, 2012 - October 13, 2012


Mad As Hell!

New Work (and Some Classics) by Sue Coe

April 17, 2012 - July 3, 2012


The Ins and Outs of Self-Taught Art

Reflections on a Shifting Field

January 10, 2012 - April 7, 2012


The Lady and the Tramp

Images of Women in Austrian and German Art

October 11, 2011 - December 30, 2011


Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

July 5, 2011 - September 30, 2011


Decadence & Decay

Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, George Grosz

April 12, 2011 - June 24, 2011


Self-Taught Painters in American 1800-1950

Revisiting the Tradition

January 11, 2011 - April 2, 2011


Marie-Louise Motesiczky

Paradise Lost & Found

October 12, 2010 - December 30, 2010


Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

July 13, 2010 - October 1, 2010


Käthe Kollwitz

A Portrait of the Artist

April 13, 2010 - June 25, 2010


Seventy Years Grandma Moses

A Loan Exhibition Celebrating the 70th Anniversary of the Artist's "Discovery"

February 3, 2010 - April 3, 2010


Egon Schiele as Printmaker

A Loan Exhibition Celebrating the 70th Anniversary of the Galerie St. Etienne

November 3, 2009 - January 23, 2010


From Brücke To Bauhaus

The Meanings of Modernity in Germany, 1905-1933

March 31, 2009 - June 26, 2009


They Taught Themselves

American Self-Taught Painters Between the World Wars

January 9, 2009 - March 14, 2009


Elephants We Must Never Forget

New Paintings Drawings and Prints by Sue Coe

October 14, 2008 - December 20, 2008


Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

June 24, 2008 - September 26, 2008


Hope or Menace?

Communism in Germany Between the World Wars

March 25, 2008 - June 13, 2008


Transforming Reality

Pattern and Design in Modern and Self-Taught Art

January 15, 2008 - March 8, 2008


Leonard Baskin

Proofs and Process

October 9, 2007 - January 5, 2008


Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

June 5, 2007 - September 28, 2007


Who Paid the Piper?

The Art of Patronage in Fin-de-Siècle Vienna

March 8, 2007 - May 26, 2007


Fairy Tale, Myth and Fantasy

Approaches to Spirituality in Art

December 7, 2006 - February 3, 2007


More Than Coffee was Served

Café Culture in Fin-de-Siècle Vienna and Weimar Germany

September 19, 2006 - November 25, 2006


Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

June 6, 2006 - September 8, 2006


Parallel Visions II

"Outsider" and "Insider" Art Today

April 5, 2006 - May 26, 2006


Ilija!

His First American Exhibtion

January 17, 2006 - March 18, 2006


Coming of Age

Egon Schiele and the Modernist Culture of Youth

November 15, 2005 - January 7, 2006


Sue Coe:

Sheep of Fools

September 20, 2005 - November 5, 2005


Recent Acquisitions

And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market

June 7, 2005 - September 9, 2005


Every Picture Tells a Story

The Narrative Impulse in Modern and Contemporary Art

April 5, 2005 - May 27, 2005


65th Anniversary Exhibition, Part II

Self-Taught Artists

January 18, 2005 - March 26, 2005


65th Anniversary Exhibition, Part I

Austrian and German Expressionism

October 28, 2004 - January 8, 2005


Sue Coe: Bully: Master of the Global Merry-Go-Round and Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

June 8, 2004 - October 16, 2004


Animals & Us

The Animal in Contemporary Art

April 1, 2004 - May 22, 2004


Henry Darger

Art and Myth

January 15, 2004 - March 20, 2004


Body and Soul

Expressionism and the Human Figure

October 7, 2003 - January 3, 2004


Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

June 24, 2003 - September 12, 2003


In Search of the "Total Artwork"

Viennese Art and Design 1897–1932

April 8, 2003 - June 14, 2003


Russia's Self-Taught Artists

A New Perspective on the "Outsider"

January 14, 2003 - March 29, 2003


Käthe Kollwitz:

Master Printmaker

October 1, 2002 - January 4, 2003


Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

June 25, 2002 - September 20, 2002


Workers of the World

Modern Images of Labor

April 2, 2002 - June 15, 2002


Grandma Moses

Reflections of America

January 15, 2002 - March 16, 2002


Gustav Klimt/Egon Schiele/Oskar Kokoscha

From Art Nouveau to Expressionism

November 23, 2001 - January 5, 2002


The "Black-and-White" Show

Expressionist Graphics in Austria & Germany

September 20, 2001 - November 10, 2001


Recent Acquisitions (And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

June 26, 2001 - September 7, 2001


Art with an Agenda

Politics, Persuasion, Illustration and Decoration

April 10, 2001 - June 16, 2001


"Our Beautiful and Tormented Austria!": Art Brut in the Land of Freud

January 18, 2001 - March 17, 2001


The Tragedy of War

November 16, 2000 - January 6, 2001


The Expressionist City

September 19, 2000 - November 4, 2000


Recent Acquisitions (And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

June 20, 2000 - September 8, 2000


From Façade to Psyche

Turn-of-the-Century Portraiture in Austria & Germany

March 28, 2000 - June 10, 2000


European Self-Taught Art

Brut or Naive?

January 18, 2000 - March 11, 2000


Saved From Europe

In Commemoration of the 60th Anniversary of the Galerie St. Etienne

November 6, 1999 - January 8, 2000


The Modern Child

(Images of Children in Twentieth-Century Art)

September 14, 1999 - November 6, 1999


Recent Acquisitions

(And a Look at Sixty Years of Art Dealing)

June 15, 1999 - September 3, 1999


Sue Coe: The Pit

The Tragical Tale of the Rise and Fall of a Vivisector

March 30, 1999 - June 5, 1999


Henry Darger and His Realms

January 14, 1999 - March 13, 1999


Becoming Käthe Kollwitz

An Artist and Her Influences

November 17, 1998 - December 31, 1998


George Grosz - Elfriede Lohse-Wächtler

Art & Gender in Weimar Germany

September 23, 1998 - November 11, 1998


Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts About Looted Art)

June 9, 1998 - September 11, 1998


Taboo

Repression and Revolt in Modern Art

March 26, 1998 - May 30, 1998


Sacred & Profane

Michel Nedjar and Expressionist Primitivism

January 13, 1998 - March 14, 1998


Egon Schiele (1890-1918)

Master Draughtsman

November 18, 1997 - January 3, 1998


The New Objectivity

Realism in Weimar-Era Germany

September 16, 1997 - November 8, 1997


Recent Acquisitions

A Question of Quality

June 10, 1997 - September 5, 1997


Käthe Kollwitz - Lea Grundig

Two German Women & The Art of Protest

March 25, 1997 - May 31, 1997


That Way Madness Lies

Expressionism and the Art of Gugging

January 14, 1997 - March 15, 1997


The Viennese Line

Art and Design Circa 1900

November 18, 1996 - January 4, 1997


Emil Nolde - Christian Rohlfs

Two German Expressionist Masters

September 24, 1996 - November 9, 1996


Breaking All The Rules

Art in Transition

June 11, 1996 - September 6, 1996


Sue Coe's Ship of Fools

March 26, 1996 - May 24, 1996


New York Folk

Lawrence Lebduska, Abraham Levin, Isreal Litwak

January 16, 1996 - March 16, 1996


The Fractured Form

Expressionism and the Human Body

November 15, 1995 - January 6, 1996


From Left to Right

Social Realism in Germany and Russia, Circa 1919-1933

September 19, 1995 - November 4, 1995


Recent Acquisitions

June 20, 1995 - September 8, 1995


On the Brink 1900-2000

The Turning of Two Centuries

March 28, 1995 - May 26, 1995


Earl Cummingham - Grandma Moses

Visions of America

January 17, 1995 - March 18, 1995


Drawn to Text: Comix Artists as Book Illustrators

November 15, 1994 - January 7, 1995


Three Berlin Artists of the Weimar Era: Hannah Höch, Käthe Kollwitz, Jeanne Mam

September 13, 1994 - November 5, 1994


55th Anniversary Exhibition in Memory of Otto Kallir

June 7, 1994 - September 2, 1994


Sue Coe: We All Fall Down

March 29, 1994 - May 27, 1994


The Forgotten Folk Art of the 1940's

January 18, 1994 - March 19, 1994


Symbolism and the Austrian Avant Garde

Klimt, Schiele and their Contemporaries

November 16, 1993 - January 8, 1994


Art and Politics in Weimar Germany

September 14, 1993 - November 6, 1993


Recent Acquisitions

June 8, 1993 - September 3, 1993


The "Outsider" Question

Non-Academic Art from 1900 to the Present

March 23, 1993 - May 28, 1993


The Dance of Death

Images of Mortality in German Art

January 19, 1993 - March 13, 1993


Art Spiegelman

The Road to Maus

November 17, 1992 - January 9, 1993


Käthe Kollwitz

In Celebration of the 125th Anniversary of the Artist's Birth

September 15, 1992 - November 7, 1992


Naive Visions/Art Nouveau and Expressionism/Sue Coe: The Road to the White House

May 19, 1992 - September 4, 1992


Richard Gerstl/Oskar Kokoschka

March 17, 1992 - May 9, 1992


Scandal, Outrage, Censorship

Controversy in Modern Art

January 21, 1992 - March 7, 1992


Viennese Graphic Design

From Secession to Expressionism

November 19, 1991 - January 11, 1992


The Expressionist Figure

September 10, 1991 - November 9, 1991


Recent Acquisitions

Themes and Variations

May 14, 1991 - August 16, 1991


Sue Coe Retrospective

Political Document of a Decade

March 12, 1991 - May 5, 1991


Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele, Oskar Kokoschka

Watercolors, drawings and prints

January 22, 1991 - March 2, 1991


Egon Schiele

November 13, 1990 - January 12, 1991


Lovis Corinth

A Retrospective

September 11, 1990 - November 3, 1990


Recent Acquisitions

June 12, 1990 - August 31, 1990


Max Klinger, Käthe Kollwitz, Alfred Kubin

A Study in Influences

March 27, 1990 - June 2, 1990


The Narrative in Art

January 23, 1990 - March 17, 1990


Grandma Moses

November 14, 1989 - January 13, 1990


Sue Coe

Porkopolis--Animals and Industry

September 19, 1989 - November 4, 1989


The Galerie St. Etienne

A History in Documents and Pictures

June 20, 1989 - September 8, 1989


Gustav Klimt

Paintings and Drawings

April 11, 1989 - June 10, 1989


Fifty Years Galerie St. Etienne: An Overview

February 14, 1989 - April 1, 1989


Folk Artists at Work

Morris Hirshfield, John Kane and Grandma Moses

November 15, 1988 - January 14, 1989


Recent Acquisitions and Works From the Collection

June 14, 1988 - September 16, 1988


From Art Nouveau to Expressionism

April 12, 1988 - May 27, 1988


Three Pre-Expressionists

Lovis Corinth Käthe Kollwitz Paula Modersohn-Becker

January 26, 1988 - March 12, 1988


Käthe Kollwitz

The Power of the Print

November 17, 1987 - January 16, 1988


Recent Acquisitions and Works From the Collection

April 7, 1987 - October 31, 1987


Folk Art of This Century

February 10, 1987 - March 28, 1987


Oskar Kokoschka and His Time

November 25, 1986 - January 31, 1987


Viennese Design and Wiener Werkstätte

September 23, 1986 - November 8, 1986


Gustav Klimt/Egon Schiele/Oskar Kokoschka

Watercolors, Drawings and Prints

May 27, 1986 - September 13, 1986


Expressionist Painters

March 25, 1986 - May 10, 1986


Käthe Kollwitz/Paula Modersohn-Becker

January 28, 1986 - March 15, 1986


The Art of Giving

December 3, 1985 - January 18, 1986


Expressionists on Paper

October 8, 1985 - November 23, 1985


European and American Landscapes

June 4, 1985 - September 13, 1985


Expressionist Printmaking

Aspects of its Genesis and Development

April 1, 1985 - May 24, 1985


Expressionist Masters

January 18, 1985 - March 23, 1985


Arnold Schoenberg's Vienna

November 13, 1984 - January 5, 1985


Grandma Moses and Selected Folk Paintings

September 25, 1984 - November 3, 1984


American Folk Art

People, Places and Things

June 12, 1984 - September 14, 1984


John Kane

Modern America's First Folk Painter

April 17, 1984 - May 25, 1984


Eugène Mihaesco

The Illustrator as Artist

February 28, 1984 - April 7, 1984


Early Expressionist Masters

January 17, 1984 - February 18, 1984


Paula Modersohn-Becker

Germany's Pioneer Modernist

November 15, 1983 - January 7, 1984


Gustav Klimt

Drawings and Selected Paintings

September 20, 1983 - November 5, 1983


Early and Late

Drawings, Paintings & Prints from Academicism to Expressionism

June 1, 1983 - September 2, 1983


Alfred Kubin

Visions From The Other Side

March 22, 1983 - May 7, 1983


20th Century Folk

The First Generation

January 18, 1983 - March 12, 1983


Grandma Moses

The Artist Behind the Myth

November 15, 1982 - January 8, 1983


Käthe Kollwitz

The Artist as Printmaker

September 28, 1982 - November 6, 1982


Aspects of Modernism

June 1, 1982 - September 3, 1982


The Human Perspective

Recent Acquisitions

March 16, 1982 - May 15, 1982


19th and 20th Century European and American Folk Art

January 19, 1982 - March 6, 1982


The Folk Art Tradition

Naïve Painting in Europe and the United States

November 17, 1981 - January 9, 1982


Austria's Expressionism

April 21, 1981 - May 30, 1981


Eugène Mihaesco

His First American One-Man Show

March 3, 1981 - April 11, 1981


Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele

November 12, 1980 - December 27, 1980


Summer Exhibition

June 17, 1980 - October 31, 1980


Kollwitz: The Drawing and The Print

May 1, 1980 - June 10, 1980


40th Anniversary Exhibition

November 13, 1979 - December 28, 1979


American Primitive Art

November 22, 1977


Käthe Kollwitz

December 1, 1976


Neue Galerie-Galerie St. Etienne

A Documentary Exhibition

May 1, 1976


Martin Pajeck

January 27, 1976


Georges Rouault and Frans Masereel

April 29, 1972


Branko Paradis

December 1, 1971


Käthe Kollwitz

February 3, 1971


Egon Schiele

The Graphic Work

October 19, 1970


Gustav Klimt

March 20, 1970


Friedrich Hundertwasser

May 6, 1969


Austrian Art of the 20th Century

March 21, 1969


Egon Schiele

Memorial Exhibition

October 31, 1968


Yugoslav Primitive Art

April 30, 1968


Alfred Kubin

January 30, 1968


Käthe Kollwitz

In the Cause of Humanity

October 23, 1967


Abraham Levin

September 26, 1967


Karl Stark

April 5, 1967


Gustav Klimt

February 4, 1967


The Wiener Werkstätte

November 16, 1966


Oskar Laske

October 25, 1965


Käthe Kollwitz

May 1, 1965


Egon Schiele

Watercolors and Drawings from American Collections

March 1, 1965


25th Anniversary Exhibition

Part II

November 21, 1964


25th Anniversary Exhibition

Part I

October 17, 1964


Mary Urban

June 9, 1964


Werner Berg, Jane Muus and Mura Dehn

May 5, 1964


Eugen Spiro

April 4, 1964


B. F. Dolbin

Drawings of an Epoch

March 3, 1964


Austrian Expressionists

January 6, 1964


Joseph Rifesser

December 3, 1963


Panorama of Yugoslav Primitive Art

October 21, 1963


Joe Henry

Watercolors of Vermont

May 1, 1963


French Impressionists

March 8, 1963


Grandma Moses

Memorial Exhibition

November 26, 1962


Group Show

October 15, 1962


Ernst Barlach

March 23, 1962


Martin Pajeck

February 24, 1962


Paintings by Expressionists

January 27, 1962


Käthe Kollwitz

November 11, 1961


Grandma Moses

September 7, 1961


My Friends

Fourth Biennial of Pictures by American School Children

May 27, 1961


Raimonds Staprans

April 17, 1961


Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele, Oskar Kokoschka and Alfred Kubin

March 14, 1961


Marvin Meisels

January 23, 1961


Egon Schiele

November 15, 1960


My Life's History

Paintings by Grandma Moses

September 12, 1960


Watercolors and Drawings by Austrian Artists from the Dial Collection

May 2, 1960


Martin Pajeck

February 29, 1960


Eugen Spiro

February 6, 1960


Käthe Kollwitz

December 14, 1959


Josef Scharl

Last Paintings and Drawings

November 11, 1959


European and American Expressionists

September 22, 1959


Our Town

One Hundred Paintings by American School Children

May 23, 1959


Marvin Meisels and Martin Pajeck

May 1, 1959


Gustav Klimt

April 1, 1959


Käthe Kollwitz

January 12, 1959


Oskar Kokoschka

October 28, 1958


Village Life in Guatemala

Paintings by Andres Curuchich

June 3, 1958


Two Unknown American Expressionists

Paintings by Marvin Meisels and Martin Pajeck

April 28, 1958


Paula Modersohn-Becker

March 15, 1958


The Great Tradition in American Painting

American Primitive Art

January 20, 1958


Jules Lefranc and Dominique Lagru

Two French Primitives

November 18, 1957


Margret Bilger

October 22, 1957


The Four Seasons

One Hundred Paintings by American School Children

June 11, 1957


Grandma Moses

May 6, 1957


Alfred Kubin

April 3, 1957


Franz Lerch

March 2, 1957


Egon Schiele

January 21, 1957


Josef Scharl

Memorial Exhibition

November 17, 1956


Irma Rothstein

May 19, 1956


Käthe Kollwitz

April 16, 1956


A Tribute to Grandma Moses

November 28, 1955


As I See Myself

One Hundred Paintings by American School Children

May 20, 1955


Juan De'Prey

April 19, 1955


Erich Heckel

March 29, 1955


Freddy Homburger

March 2, 1955


Masters of the 19th Century

January 18, 1955


Oskar Kokoschka

November 29, 1954


Isabel Case Borgatta and Josef Scharl

October 12, 1954


James N. Rosenberg and Eugen Spiro

April 30, 1954


Per Krogh

April 2, 1954


Cuno Amiet

February 16, 1954


Eniar Jolin

January 14, 1954


Irma Rothstein

December 8, 1953


Josef Scharl

November 11, 1953


Grandma Moses

October 21, 1953 - October 24, 1953


Wilhelm Kaufmann

September 30, 1953


Lovis Corinth, Oskar Kokoschka and Egon Schiele

May 27, 1953


A Grandma Moses Album

Recent Paintings, 1950-1953

April 15, 1953


Streeter Blair

American Primitive

February 26, 1953


Paintings on Glass

Austrian Religious Folk Art of the 17th to 19th Centuries

December 4, 1952


Hasan Kaptan

Paintings of a Ten-Year-Old Turkish Painter

October 29, 1952


Margret Bilger

May 10, 1952


American Natural Painters

March 31, 1952


Ten Years of New York Concert Impressions by Eugen Spiro; Four New Paintings by

January 26, 1952


I-Fa-Wei

Watercolors of New York by a Chinese Artist

December 1, 1951


Käthe Kollwitz

October 25, 1951


Drawings and Watercolors by Austrian Children

May 21, 1951


Grandma Moses

Twenty-Five Masterpieces of Primitive Art

March 17, 1951


Roswitha Bitterlich

January 18, 1951


Oskar Laske

Watercolors of Vienna and the Salzkammergut

October 14, 1950


Tenth Anniversary Exhibition

Part II

May 11, 1950


Austrian Art of the 19th Century

From Wadlmüller to Klimt

April 1, 1950


Chiao Ssu-Tu

February 18, 1950


Anton Faistauer

January 1, 1950


Tenth Anniversary Exhibition

Part I

November 30, 1949


Autograph Exhibition

October 26, 1949


Gladys Wertheim Bachrach

May 24, 1949


Oskar Kokoschka

March 30, 1949


Eugen Spiro

February 19, 1949


Frans Masereel

January 13, 1949


Ten Years Grandma Moses

November 22, 1948


Käthe Kollwitz

Masterworks

October 18, 1948


American Primitives

June 3, 1948


Egon Schiele

Memorial Exhibition

April 5, 1948


Miriam Richman

February 7, 1948


Vally Wieselthier

Memorial Exhibition

January 10, 1948


Christmas Exhibition

December 4, 1947


Fritz von Unruh

November 10, 1947


Käthe Kollwitz

October 4, 1947


Grandma Moses

May 17, 1947


Lovis Corinth

April 16, 1947


Hugo Steiner-Prag

March 15, 1947


Mark Baum

January 11, 1947


Eugen Spiro

November 25, 1946


Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

May 17, 1946


Ladis W. Sabo

Paintings by a New Primitive Artist

April 8, 1946


Georges Rouault

The Graphic Work

February 26, 1946


Käthe Kollwitz

Memorial Exhibition

November 21, 1945


Fred E. Robertson

Paintings by an American Primitive

June 13, 1945


Max Liebermann

The Graphic Work

April 18, 1945


Vienna through Four Centuries

March 1, 1945


Eugen Spiro

January 20, 1945


Grandma Moses

New Paintings

December 5, 1944


Käthe Kollwitz

Part II

October 26, 1944


A Century of French Graphic Art

From Géricault to Picasso

September 28, 1944


Max Liebermann

Memorial Exhibition

June 9, 1944


Juan De'Prey

Paintings by a Self-Taught Artist from Puerto Rico

May 6, 1944


Abraham Levin

April 15, 1944


Lesser Ury

Memorial Exhibition

March 21, 1944


Grandma Moses

Paintings by the Senior of the American Primitives

February 9, 1944


Betty Lane

January 11, 1944


WaIt Disney Cavalcade

December 9, 1943


Käthe Kollwitz

Part I

November 3, 1943


Will Barnet

September 29, 1943


Lovis Corinth

May 26, 1943


Josephine Joy

Paintings by an American Primitive

May 3, 1943


Oskar Kokoschka

Aspects of His Art

March 31, 1943


Eugen Spiro

February 13, 1943


Seymour Lipton

January 18, 1943


Illuminated Gothic Woodcuts

Printed and Painted, 1477-1493

December 5, 1942


Abraham Levin

November 4, 1942


Walt Disney Originals

September 23, 1942


Documents which Relate History

Documents of Historical Importance and Landmarks of Human Development

June 10, 1942


Honoré Daumier

April 29, 1942


Bertha Trabich

Memorial Exhibition of a Russian-American Primitive

March 25, 1942


Alfred Kubin

Master of Drawing

December 4, 1941


Egon Schiele

November 7, 1941


Betty Lane

June 3, 1941


Flowers from Old Vienna

18th and Early 19th Century Flower Painting

May 7, 1941


Weavings by Navaho and Hopi Indians and Photos of Indians by Helen M. Post

January 29, 1941


Georg Merkel

November 7, 1940


What a Farm Wife Painted

Works by Mrs. Anna Mary Moses

October 9, 1940


Saved from Europe

Masterpieces of European Art

July 1, 1940


American Abstract Art

May 22, 1940


Franz Lerch

May 1, 1940


Wilhelm Thöny

April 3, 1940


French Masters of the 19th and 20th Centuries

February 29, 1940


H. W. Hannau

Metropolis, Photographic Studies of New York

February 2, 1940


Oskar Kokoschka

January 9, 1940


Austrian Masters

November 13, 1939


EGON SCHIELE AS PRINTMAKER

A Loan Exhibition Celebrating the 70th Anniversary of the Galerie St. Etienne

November 3, 2009 - January 23, 2010

ARTISTS

Schiele, Egon

ESSAY

Although widely recognized as one of the greatest draughtsmen of the modern era, Egon Schiele is often underrated as a printmaker. Granted, he produced only seventeen prints (as compared with more than two thousand unique works on paper), but these lithographs, linocuts, woodcuts and etchings evidence the same graphic intensity seen in the better-known drawings and watercolors. Schiele’s prints not only reflect artistic concerns he was pursuing contemporaneously in other mediums, but, clustered in the years 1912, 1914, 1916 and 1918, the graphics closely track his overall development. A comprehensive reassessment of this neglected aspect of the artist’s oeuvre is thus long overdue.

 

Fostering a wider understanding of Schiele’s multifaceted achievements has been central to the Galerie St. Etienne’s mission since its founding in 1939, at a time when few in the United States had ever heard of the artist. It therefore seems appropriate to focus our 70th anniversary celebration on Schiele’s prints, which furthermore occupy a significant place in our history. Otto Kallir, the gallery’s founder, began his career in Vienna as a publisher of limited-edition graphics. In 1921, he published the first edition of Schiele’s Portrait of Franz Hauer in the catalogue for the “Schwarz-Weiss” (Black-and-White) exhibition at the Künstlerhaus in Salzburg. The following year, he issued the portfolio Das graphische Werk von Egon Schiele, containing editions of all the artist’s etchings (Portrait of a Man, Self-Portrait, Portrait of Franz Hauer, Squatting Woman, Sorrow, Portrait of Arthur Roessler) and his last two lithographs (Portrait of Paris von Gütersloh and Girl), none of which had been published during Schiele’s lifetime. After compiling the catalogues raisonnés of Schiele’s paintings (1930 and 1966), Kallir wrote the first proper catalogue raisonné of the prints in 1970. Kallir’s granddaughter and current St. Etienne Co-Director, Jane Kallir, updated these catalogues raisonnés in her comprehensive volume Egon Schiele: The Complete Works (1990 and 1998).

 

Schiele’s initial encounter with printmaking was prompted by an increased involvement with the German art scene. In October 1911, he had his first German exhibition at the Munich gallery of Hans Goltz. Shortly thereafter, he was invited to join the Munich-based artist’s association Sema and to submit a lithograph for publication in the group’s forthcoming print portfolio. Schiele chose for his subject a nude self-portrait, as though announcing his presence on the German scene, or saying, simply: “I am here; this is who I am.” Self-portraits, reflecting a post-adolescent search for identity, had figured prominently in Schiele’s oeuvre from the time of his Expressionist breakthrough in 1910. The artist probed his innermost feelings in these works, but he was also consciously play-acting, presenting himself to the public in various guises. In the studies for the Sema lithograph, he tested a number of personalities: defiant, seductive, confrontational or coy. He ended up submitting two transfer drawings to Sema: in the first, the artist appears wary but confident (Kallir G. 1), while in the second, he seems to recoil in fear (Kallir G. 2). Sema chose the first version, which was published in early 1912. Only three proof impressions, all unsigned, of the rejected self-portrait have been recorded.

 

Schiele’s unique combination of arrogance and vulnerability is encapsulated in the two Sema self-portraits. The subject’s nudity—brash but exposed—and the inexplicable absence of a penis further underscore this existential ambiguity. Schiele believed fervently in the sanctity of his artistic mission, but his emotional honesty left him undefended against attacks by those who did not share his vision. He thought that his status as an artist granted him immunity from the strictures imposed by society upon ordinary mortals. Yet time and again, he was undone by the demands of bourgeois life. These could be as basic as the necessity of earning money, the cause of countless squabbles between himself and his patrons. More insidiously, bourgeois morality did not condone the artistic lifestyle, as manifested by Schiele’s open cohabitation with his model Wally Neuzil and, especially, his habit of bringing underage school children into the sexually tainted atmosphere of his studio. It was the latter practice, ultimately, that landed Schiele in jail in April 1912, on charges of “public immorality.” He emerged after 24 days both chastened and furious. Two post-prison watercolor self-portraits (this time confined to the artist’s face) echo the dichotomy expressed in the Sema prints. Schiele is, respectively, defiant in the one watercolor and dejected in the other. But now he is no longer posing. The emotions have been forged in the crucible of real life.

 

Following his imprisonment, Schiele faced persistent financial difficulties. His paintings sold poorly in Germany, and the system of private patronage, which dominated the more backward Austrian art market, was not sufficient to support a young artist still struggling to establish a reputation. Schiele’s second stab at printmaking was prompted by his patron Arthur Roessler, who, tired of the artist’s constant requests for money, suggested etching as a way to earn additional income. Declaring that he considered drypoint—an intaglio process that uses a pointed stylus instead of acid—“the only honest and artistic etching technique,” Schiele acquiesced. Roessler bankrolled the venture by providing the necessary equipment, and an artist friend, Robert Philippi, offered to give Schiele lessons. Following an example etched by Philippi to one side of the plate, Schiele created his first etching (a Portrait of a Man (Kallir G. 3) who strikingly resembles the artist) in March or April 1914 (checklist no. 24). Two further small etchings (Self-Portrait (Kallir G. 4) and Portrait of Franz Hauer) (Kallir G. 5), drawn on the recto and verso of a single plate, followed shortly thereafter. By May, Schiele was ready for larger plates, executing in fairly rapid succession two images of female nudes, Squatting Woman (Kallir G. 6) and Sorrow (Kallir G. 7), and a portrait of Roessler (Kallir G. 8). Probably at Roessler’s request, Schiele pulled and signed at least nine (and possibly as many as 32) impressions of the portrait, but very few lifetime proofs exist of the other drypoints. And with this, the etching experiment was over. By the end of the summer, Schiele had given away his tools, remarking, “In the time needed to etch one plate, I can well and easily create fifty to sixty—no, even more, surely about one hundred—drawings.”

 

Despite his aversion to the etching medium, Schiele was readily able to turn it to his own ends. With his third drypoint, the Portrait of Franz Hauer, he was already in firm control of the stylus, wielding it with the same authority as a pencil. Hauer, a kindly innkeeper who was a noted patron of young painters, had met Schiele in 1912, and it is likely that the artist created the portrait in thanks for his considerable support. While there is no evidence that this was a formal commission, Schiele, as with any such project, executed a series of preliminary pencil studies. Adopting an approach that would come to typify his later portraits, Schiele focused almost exclusively on Hauer’s face, viewed from various angles and sometimes in tandem with the sitter’s hands. It is not clear whether the stitch-like perpendicular strokes with which Schiele embellished his lines in the Hauer studies intentionally anticipate the crosshatching that is used to suggest volume and shadow in etchings. For whatever reason, hatched lines are common to many of the artist’s drawings in mid 1914—the period that coincides with his etching experiences. From this evolved a more conscious awareness of the interplay between two-dimensional line and three dimensional illusion, which culminated in Schiele’s more voluptuously modeled late figure drawings.

 

If the Roessler etching, like the Hauer portrait, was a “thank you” gesture for a deserving patron, the two drypoint nudes were closely related to Schiele’s paintings Blind Mother (Kallir P. 272) and Young Mother (Kallir P. 273). Motherhood had, for some years, been a significant recurrent theme in Schiele’s allegories. He was inclined to see mothers as expedients whose sole purpose in life was to nurture youth (representing, for Schiele, artistic genius). Tired, spent and dead mothers proliferate in his paintings from 1910 on, but by 1914 Schiele was beginning to develop new approaches to the subject. The Blind Mother—literally and figuratively unable to see—is incapable of nurturing. The Young Mother, on the other hand, represents a more hopeful paradigm. The etching Sorrow is based on Blind Mother, whereas Squatting Woman replicates the pose of the Young Mother. Since the drypoints and the paintings were executed at more or less the same time, it is hard to assign priority to one medium over the other. Schiele might have based the prints on the paintings, paring down his thesis to its essential characters. Or he could have employed the drypoints to work out the poses for the oils. Contemporaneous drawings and watercolors document how Schiele used studio models to develop his compositions. Often viewing the model from above, he would drop out all background detail to leave her floating in blank space, and then twist her into the desired position. Thus the Squatting Woman/Young Mother, who in reality probably posed on her hands and knees, is transfigured by a far more ethereal vertical orientation. The transition from real to allegorical space strengthens the underlying metaphor in the final composition.

 

The etching project was partly inspired by hopes that Schiele would be able to sell the editions in Germany. In 1914, he received inquiries about prints not just from Goltz, but from the Berlin dealers J.B. Neumann and Fritz Gurlitt. Although nothing came of this, the comparatively robust German art scene remained a lure, even after World War I had drastically reduced cultural interchange. The left-wing Berlin periodical Die Aktion regularly published Schiele’s work, and in 1916 the editor, Franz Pfemfert, decided to put out a special “Egon Schiele issue.” Since woodcuts were cheaper to print than reproductions of drawings, Schiele, at Pfemfert’s request, agreed to try his hand at the new technique. Philippi was again engaged as instructor, and within a few weeks in the summer of 1916, Schiele created the two woodcuts that were reproduced in Die Aktion that September (Kallir G. 13 and 14), as well as four rubbercuts (Kallir G. 9, 10, 11 and 12), done as preliminary exercises.

 

The rubbercuts and woodcuts differ from Schiele’s other prints not only in technique, but in their diminutive size. The rubbercuts, in fact, are scarcely larger than a thumbnail, and one can imagine that Schiele enjoyed the tactile immediacy of carving into the small soft rubber blocks. Wood is harder to cut, but again Schiele seems to have taken instinctively to the manipulation of flat shapes and negative space intrinsic to this art form. Both these aesthetic characteristics are central to Art Nouveau graphics, which had a formative influence on Schiele’s early development, as well as on the German Expressionists who pioneered the woodcut revival. While the chunky rubber- and woodcuts may seem quite different in style to the spare elegance of Schiele’s drawings, these little prints are closely related to the artist’s sketchbook studies. Schiele carried small graph-ruled notebooks with him almost constantly, using them to jot down creative concepts as they came to him. For this purpose, he invented a kind of visual shorthand, manipulating tiny figures and objects in little boxes denoting imagined future canvases. The format is almost identical to that of the Aktion prints.

 

Schiele, who early on had been influenced by the Art-Nouveau genius Gustav Klimt, had a greater affinity to poster design than to conventional printmaking. The poster for his first one-man show at the Galerie Goltz combined relatively pedestrian typography with a greatly enlarged reproduction of one of the artist’s drawings. It can be assumed that Schiele had little or no input into that poster’s design, and he may well have been displeased with it. At any rate, hereafter Schiele took a far more active interest in designing his exhibition posters. The artist’s feeling for negative space, for the placement of images on the sheet—a skill that served him well in his woodcuts and is central to his drawings—is evident in his poster for an unidentified 1915 exhibition, as well as in the poster he created for his 1918 retrospective at the Vienna Secession (Kallir G. 15).

 

The concept for the Secession poster dates back to at least January 1917, when Schiele began planning a painting that he called, simply, The Friends (Kallir P. 323). In keeping with his predilection for religious allegory, The Friends evokes the Last Supper. Christ, his back to the viewer, occupies the chair at the foot of the table, but Schiele, seated opposite, is the dominant figure. This surprising juxtaposition reflects Schiele’s belief that artists, connecting the mundane to the spiritual, perform a priestly function. The others in the group are all artistic colleagues. In the original painting (which remained unfinished) and a related study (Kallir P. 324), the table is set with plates of food and carafes of wine. For the more secular poster, Schiele replaced the plates with books, but left the carafes in place. In this rendition, the seat at the end of the table is left vacant, possibly for Gustav Klimt, who had recently died.

 

The technical sophistication of the Secession poster is at least in part due to Schiele’s collaboration with Alfred Berger, a master lithographer who printed many of the Secession’s greatest posters. It was thus natural that Schiele again chose to work with Berger for his next, and final, print project. Around the time of the Secession exhibition in March 1918, the artist was invited to contribute a color lithograph to the annual portfolio of the Gesellschaft für vervielfältigende Kunst (Society for Art Reproductions). At the time, he was working on an oil painting of the artist Paris von Gütersloh, and so Schiele decided to base his lithograph (Kallir G. 16) on the portrait studies. However, the Gesellschaft rejected this print, saying that it was not properly representative of the artist’s “special originality.” The Society’s spokesperson, Arpad Weixlgärtner, instead requested a nude. Schiele’s second attempt, Girl (Kallir G. 17), likewise did not satisfy Weixlgärtner, who asked him to tone down the genitalia and complained that, whereas the assignment was to produce a multicolored lithograph, the artist, in both his submissions, had merely generated proofs in various single colors. Schiele responded by producing a colored drawing of the Girl, though no multicolored impressions of the lithograph are known to exist. In June 1918, the Gesellschaft’s board categorically rejected all the artist’s submissions, and his work on the project ceased.

 

Schiele’s last three prints--the Secession poster, the Portrait of Paris von Gütersloh and the Girl--were essentially transfer lithographs. In the case of the poster, the black master image was a mechanical reproduction of Schiele’s design, while the two colored stones were hand-drawn, either by Schiele himself or under his supervision. The Gütersloh and Girl were transferred to stones from the artist’s drawings. Transfer lithography, which places the technical onus on a master printer, was ideal for an artist like Schiele, who did not enjoy fussing with stones or plates. As a consummate draughtsman, he was also probably pleased by the faithful, nuanced reproductions of drawings that can be achieved by this method. Like the Gütersloh portrait, Girl is closely related to a series of contemporaneous crayon studies. After his prison experiences, Schiele had become much more cautious in his dealings with underage subjects, but in 1918 he found a model who was willing to pose nude with her own daughter. Numerous drawings exist of the “girl,” with and without her mother. By 1918, Schiele’s line had lost much of its Expressionistic edge and assumed an almost classical voluptuousness. Few of his last drawings are colored; the artist was interested in the ability of line alone to convey weight, character and volume. This approach lent itself readily to transfer lithography, and it is likely that, had he lived, Schiele would have experimented further with the technique, which was also favored by his compatriots Kokoschka and Kubin.

 

At the time of Schiele’s death in October 1918, the Sema self-portrait, Male Nude I, was the only one of his prints that had been published in a signed edition. The stones for Portrait of Paris von Gütersloh and Girl remained in storage at Berger’s workshop. Robert Philippi retained the plate for Schiele’s first etching, Portrait of a Man, and Arthur Roessler, having paid for the other plates, now owned them. In 1919, as artistic director of the Avalun Verlag, Roessler ordered 125 impressions pulled from each of the two lithographic stones (which were subsequently erased) and published editions of 200 each of Sorrow and Squatting Woman. Sales of the four prints proved disappointing, and in 1921, Otto Kallir’s Verlag Neuer Graphik (the art division of the Rikola Verlag) acquired the remaining impressions, plus all Schiele’s plates. In 1922, the Verlag Neuer Graphik/Rikola issued the portfolio Das graphische Werk von Egon Schiele, incorporating the impressions purchased from Avalun as well as impressions newly pulled from the plates. The total edition size of 80 was determined by the number of available impressions of the two lithographs, which could not be reprinted. Further editions of the Self-Portrait and the Portrait of Franz Hauer (numbering 65 impressions each) were published in 1966; 80 impressions of Portrait of Arthur Roessler were published in 1970; and 100 impressions of Squatting Woman in 1990. Given the instability of drypoint lines, it is unlikely that any of these four plates could yield a further edition. Schiele’s etching plates (with the exception of that for Portrait of a Man, which is lost) are today privately owned and well protected against uncontrolled use.