Oskar Kokoschka

Knight Errant (detail). 1915. Oil on canvas. The Guggenheim Museum, New York.


The Woman Question

Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele and Oskar Kokoschka

March 14, 2017 - June 30, 2017

Recent Acquisitions

July 12, 2016 - October 7, 2016

Recent Acquisitions

July 12, 2016 - October 7, 2016

Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

July 21, 2015 - October 16, 2015

Alternate Histories

Celebrating the 75th Anniversary of the Galerie St. Etienne

January 15, 2015 - April 11, 2015

Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

July 15, 2014 - September 26, 2014

Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

July 15, 2014 - September 26, 2014

Recent Acquisitions

July 9, 2013 - September 27, 2013

Recent Acquisitions

And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market

July 9, 2013 - September 27, 2013

Art Basel 2013

Galerie St. Etienne, Hall 2.0, Booth D11

June 13, 2013 - June 16, 2013

Face Time

Self and Identity in Expressionist Portraiture

April 9, 2013 - June 28, 2013

Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

July 17, 2012 - October 13, 2012

The Lady and the Tramp

Images of Women in Austrian and German Art

October 11, 2011 - December 30, 2011

Transforming Reality

Pattern and Design in Modern and Self-Taught Art

January 15, 2008 - March 8, 2008

Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

June 5, 2007 - September 28, 2007

Who Paid the Piper?

The Art of Patronage in Fin-de-Siècle Vienna

March 8, 2007 - May 26, 2007

Fairy Tale, Myth and Fantasy

Approaches to Spirituality in Art

December 7, 2006 - February 3, 2007

More Than Coffee was Served

Café Culture in Fin-de-Siècle Vienna and Weimar Germany

September 19, 2006 - November 25, 2006

Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

June 6, 2006 - September 8, 2006

* Coming of Age

Egon Schiele and the Modernist Culture of Youth

November 15, 2005 - January 7, 2006

Recent Acquisitions

And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market

June 7, 2005 - September 9, 2005

Every Picture Tells a Story

The Narrative Impulse in Modern and Contemporary Art

April 5, 2005 - May 27, 2005

65th Anniversary Exhibition, Part I

Austrian and German Expressionism

October 28, 2004 - January 8, 2005

Body and Soul

Expressionism and the Human Figure

October 7, 2003 - January 3, 2004

Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

June 24, 2003 - September 12, 2003

In Search of the "Total Artwork"

Viennese Art and Design 1897–1932

April 8, 2003 - June 14, 2003

Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

June 25, 2002 - September 20, 2002

Gustav Klimt/Egon Schiele/Oskar Kokoscha

From Art Nouveau to Expressionism

November 23, 2001 - January 5, 2002

The "Black-and-White" Show

Expressionist Graphics in Austria & Germany

September 20, 2001 - November 10, 2001

Art with an Agenda

Politics, Persuasion, Illustration and Decoration

April 10, 2001 - June 16, 2001

Recent Acquisitions (And Some Thoughts on the Current Art Market)

June 20, 2000 - September 8, 2000

From Façade to Psyche

Turn-of-the-Century Portraiture in Austria & Germany

March 28, 2000 - June 10, 2000

Saved From Europe

In Commemoration of the 60th Anniversary of the Galerie St. Etienne

November 6, 1999 - January 8, 2000

Recent Acquisitions

(And a Look at Sixty Years of Art Dealing)

June 15, 1999 - September 3, 1999

Recent Acquisitions

(And Some Thoughts About Looted Art)

June 9, 1998 - September 11, 1998


Repression and Revolt in Modern Art

March 26, 1998 - May 30, 1998

Sacred & Profane

Michel Nedjar and Expressionist Primitivism

January 13, 1998 - March 14, 1998

Recent Acquisitions

A Question of Quality

June 10, 1997 - September 5, 1997

That Way Madness Lies

Expressionism and the Art of Gugging

January 14, 1997 - March 15, 1997

The Viennese Line

Art and Design Circa 1900

November 18, 1996 - January 4, 1997

Breaking All The Rules

Art in Transition

June 11, 1996 - September 6, 1996

The Fractured Form

Expressionism and the Human Body

November 15, 1995 - January 6, 1996

Recent Acquisitions

June 20, 1995 - September 8, 1995

55th Anniversary Exhibition in Memory of Otto Kallir

June 7, 1994 - September 2, 1994

Symbolism and the Austrian Avant Garde

Klimt, Schiele and their Contemporaries

November 16, 1993 - January 8, 1994

Recent Acquisitions

June 8, 1993 - September 3, 1993

The Dance of Death

Images of Mortality in German Art

January 19, 1993 - March 13, 1993

Naive Visions/Art Nouveau and Expressionism/Sue Coe: The Road to the White House

May 19, 1992 - September 4, 1992

Richard Gerstl/Oskar Kokoschka

March 17, 1992 - May 9, 1992

Viennese Graphic Design

From Secession to Expressionism

November 19, 1991 - January 11, 1992

The Expressionist Figure

September 10, 1991 - November 9, 1991

Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele, Oskar Kokoschka

Watercolors, drawings and prints

January 22, 1991 - March 2, 1991

Recent Acquisitions

June 12, 1990 - August 31, 1990

The Narrative in Art

January 23, 1990 - March 17, 1990

Galerie St. Etienne

A History in Documents and Pictures

June 20, 1989 - September 8, 1989

Fifty Years Galerie St. Etienne: An Overview

February 14, 1989 - April 1, 1989

From Art Nouveau to Expressionism

April 12, 1988 - May 27, 1988

Recent Acquisitions and Works From the Collection

April 7, 1987 - October 31, 1987

Oskar Kokoschka and His Time

November 25, 1986 - January 31, 1987

Viennese Design and Wiener Werkstätte

September 23, 1986 - November 8, 1986

Gustav Klimt/Egon Schiele/Oskar Kokoschka

Watercolors, Drawings and Prints

May 27, 1986 - September 13, 1986

Expressionist Painters

March 25, 1986 - May 10, 1986

The Art of Giving

December 3, 1985 - January 18, 1986

Expressionists on Paper

October 8, 1985 - November 23, 1985

European and American Landscapes

June 4, 1985 - September 13, 1985

Expressionist Printmaking

Aspects of its Genesis and Development

April 1, 1985 - May 24, 1985

Arnold Schoenberg's Vienna

November 13, 1984 - January 5, 1985

Early and Late

Drawings, Paintings & Prints from Academicism to Expressionism

June 1, 1983 - September 2, 1983

Aspects of Modernism

June 1, 1982 - September 3, 1982

The Human Perspective

Recent Acquisitions

March 16, 1982 - May 15, 1982

Austria's Expressionism

April 21, 1981 - May 30, 1981

The Wiener Werkstätte

November 16, 1966

25th Anniversary Exhibition

Part I

October 17, 1964

Austrian Expressionists

January 6, 1964

Group Show

October 15, 1962

Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele, Oskar Kokoschka and Alfred Kubin

March 14, 1961

Watercolors and Drawings by Austrian Artists from the Dial Collection

May 2, 1960

European and American Expressionists

September 22, 1959

* Oskar Kokoschka

October 28, 1958

* Oskar Kokoschka

November 29, 1954

Lovis Corinth, Oskar Kokoschka and Egon Schiele

May 27, 1953

* Oskar Kokoschka

March 30, 1949

Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka and Egon Schiele

September 15, 1945

* Oskar Kokoschka

Aspects of His Art

March 31, 1943

* Oskar Kokoschka

January 9, 1940

* Oskar Kokoschka

March 1, 1939

Austrian Art

February 1, 1939

Important Paintings

November 29, 1937

Modern Austrian Art

June 13, 1936

Anton Faistauer, Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka and Egon Schiele

June 1, 1933

* Oskar Kokoschka

October 22, 1932

* Oskar Kokoschka Part II

October 13, 1924

* Oskar Kokoschka Part I

June 24, 1924


June 20, 2000 - September 8, 2000


Beckmann, Max

Boix-Vives, Anselme

Darger, Henry

Dix, Otto

Evans, Minnie

Fejes, Emerijk

Felixmüller, Conrad

Gill, Madge

Grosz, George

Heckel, Erich

Hirshfield, Morris

Höch, Hannah

Kane, John

Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig

Kokoschka, Oskar

Kollwitz, Käthe

Leonov, Pavel

Lohse-Wächtler, Elfriede

Mammen, Jeanne

Marc, Franz

Modersohn-Becker, Paula

Moses, Anna Mary Robertson ("Grandma")

Mueller, Otto

Nedjar, Michel

Nolde, Emil

Pechstein, Hermann Max

Rohlfs, Christian

Romanenkov, Vasilij

Rowe, Nellie Mae

Ruley, Ellis

Schiele, Egon

Sekulic, Sava

Sommer, Alice

Tappert, Georg

Traylor, Bill

Wilson, Scottie

Wittlich, Josef

Zille, Heinrich

Zinelli, Carlo



It is time, once again, for the Galerie St. Etienne’s summer survey of Recent Acquisitions, and along with it, for our annual “state of the market” report. There is no doubt that the key art-world event of the past season was the announcement that the two major auction houses, Christie’s and Sotheby’s, may have colluded in a price-fixing scheme. Sotheby’s is facing indictment on anti-trust charges, and while Christie’s seems to have dodged this fate by turning state’s evidence, both houses have also been confronted by a related barrage of potentially draining civil lawsuits. As of this writing, no criminal charges have been handed down, and it is still possible that the entire episode will fizzle out. On the other hand, there are those who are predicting nothing less than the financial hobbling of the mighty auction empires and a major transformation in the nature of the art market. It is probably safe to say that the eventual outcome will lie somewhere between these two extremes. More to the point, however, the art market has already changed, and in this regard, the auction-house upheaval may be seen more as effect than cause.


It is surprising how many art-world insiders, though hardly fans of the auction houses, fail to see any great harm in the alleged collusion. Why shouldn’t Sotheby’s and Christie’s charge identical commissions (as do most European auctioneers), and what difference does it make if those commissions were in fact discussed between the houses in advance or were merely the result of copy-cat maneuvering? On the other hand, one dealer commented shortly after the scandal broke that the legal thrust was comparable to prosecuting Al Capone on tax evasion charges: the auctioneers’ true crimes were greater but largely unprovable. Indeed, almost everyone with extensive auction-house experience has had his or her share of disappointments: of estimates proffered to entice a consignment and then lowered before the sale; of reserves not met or not honored; of undisclosed condition problems and even of outright forgeries. Mostly these problems arise not as a result of deliberate misrepresentation, but as the natural outcome of the volume of business handled by the large houses; it is simply not possible for their “experts” to be truly expert in everything. More disturbing is the fact that auction theatrics belie the commonly held belief that the hammer price represents a genuine "fair market value” as between willing buyer and willing seller. Auctioneers routinely pluck fictive bids from the air until the undisclosed reserve price is met. And auctioneers, ostensibly neutral intermediaries between buyer and seller, increasingly have a financial stake in the property they sell.


The current legal woes of Sotheby's and Christie's reflect a number of systemic problems resulting from the houses' shift in focus from wholesale to retail over the course of the past twenty-odd years. So long as auctioneers sold primarily to the art trade, a caveat-emptor approach seemed justifiable, since the buyers frequently were more knowledgeable than the sellers and served as vetting agents for the general public. And dealers historically served a second key function in the marketplace, by holding inventory for which there was no immediate buyer. For despite the massive efforts made by the auction houses to expand the retail art market beyond the inherently limited class of committed collectors, even today 20% to 30% of all lots fail to sell, and many more sell poorly. The press is happy to support the auction houses by publicizing record prices, but these represent a minute fraction of all sales results. A gambler's ethos drives many sellers to auctions, which are fueled by heady dreams of striking it rich. But as in Vegas, there will always be more losers than winners at this game. On any given day, there is far more art available for sale than there are ready buyers. The dealer's mark-up is essentially an earned reward for investing time, energy and capital in this art until it can be sold, as well as for his or her carefully cultivated expertise.


Depending on the circumstances of a particular sale, auction results can range from below wholesale to above retail. Some believe that the Internet will bring greater transparency to the art market by placing buyers and sellers in direct contact and by making auction records more widely accessible. So far, although many dealers (including Galerie St. Etienne, have found the Internet to be useful for disseminating information, e-commerce per se has not proven terribly effective for selling higher-priced artworks. The unsold rate at Internet auctions is even greater than for bricks-and-mortar sales, and misrepresentation and forgeries (witting or not) are rampant. A recent article in The New York Times drew parallels between the dot-com stock mania and the quest for underpriced flea-market treasures, as popularized by the television program Antiques Road Show. The myth of the valuable yard-sale find is one that dealers have long had to contend with; the issue now is that, instead of wasting a few dollars on worthless trash, speculators sometimes spend thousands (or, as in one well-publicized case, many tens of thousands) on the Internet auction site eBay. Truly impressive flea-market finds are exceedingly rare. (Since its founding in 1939, the Galerie St. Etienne has encountered only one such instance: a Schiele drawing discovered at a Southern California yard sale.) But if the value of a given item is what the market will bear, who is to say what anything is worth?


Good art dealers have traditionally operated on the premise that at any single point in time, every object does have its correct price. In order to come up with this price, dealers weigh a number of factors: not just auction results, but knowledge of private sales, constant feedback from collectors, as well as the quality, condition and art-historical importance of the object in question. Yet auction mania (not just for art, but for consumer goods and products like airline tickets) has convinced some that nothing should have a fixed price. According to the current wisdom, the market is smarter than the experts. Collectors today play both ends against the middle, pointing to the lowest auction results when buying and the highest ones when selling. Unfortunately, many times when the seller hits the jackpot, the buyer has overpaid, and when the buyer gets a bargain, the seller has been cheated. Buyers and sellers go it alone in the art market at their peril.


Arcane though it may seem to the uninitiated, the art market has on a certain level always been transparent. As one of the last unregulated markets, it exemplifies laissez-faire capitalism at its purest: prices are determined by balancing supply with demand, and inequities eventually sort themselves out among knowledgeable players. The problem, however, is that art is no longer the sole province of the knowledgeable few. Today art serves many audiences beyond the dedicated connoisseurs who remain at the core of the market. Art may be an investment to some, a consumer product to others; for many, it is the ultimate luxury good in our new, top-heavy economy. That economy has brought widening income disparities between the upper and lower echelons of society, and a parallel gap can be seen in the art market. The much vaunted "flight to quality" is actually nothing but the result of a handful of billionaires fighting over items they have been led to believe are superior, often at the expense of equally good but less spectacular art works. Understandably, dealers and auctioneers follow these big spenders like dogs chasing a juicy bone. But this leaves the vast majority of lesser collectors and art works under-represented and under-served.


Sotheby's and others are betting on a business paradigm the splits the market between bricks-and-mortar auctions and the Internet, with higher-priced lots consigned to the sales rooms and less expensive art selling on-line. Nevertheless, there seems to be a fundamental contradiction between the corporate structures of the big auction houses and the anti-hierarchical, free-flowing nature of the Internet. Furthermore, corporate hierarchies are not all that well-suited to selling art. Large corporations tend to rely on standardization and bureaucracy, whereas the uniqueness of art objects resists commodification and demands personal attention. In the past two decades, Sotheby's and Christie's, simply by virtue of their enormous capitalization, have managed to take over a significant percentage of the global art market. However, whether this hegemony was achieved by sheer might or by illegal practices (or some combination of the two), it may well turn out that the auction houses have reached their natural limits. In the Internet era, centralized power is trumped by honest information, expertise and personal service. And good dealers have the advantage in the latter areas. The paradigm seems to be shifting, the pendulum swinging back to the fundamentals that have always been at the heart of the art market.


As always, the Galerie St. Etienne’s Recent Acquisitions exhibition features both newly acquired works and highlights of the past season. Works by self-taught artists make a particularly strong showing here this summer. The gallery has been fortunate in acquiring several major Grandma Moses paintings, as well as a selection of “new” works by Henry Darger, Minnie Evans, John Kane, Nellie Mae Rowe, Ellis Ruley and Bill Traylor. We are also advancing our foray into European Art Brut (the subject of our January/February exhibition). In addition to such well-known European “outsiders” as Anselme Boix-Vives, Michel Nedjar, Sava Sekulic, Scottie Wilson and Carlo Zinelli, we are pleased to present more work by Vasilij Romanenkov, who proved to be our most popular discovery of the year. We are also introducing the work of another self-taught Russian artist, Pavel Leonov.


Expressionism, of course, remains a mainstay of our summer presentation. With major works by the Austrian and German Expressionists increasingly hard to come by, we are pleased to have acquired a broad array of pieces by such artists as Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, George Grosz, Erich Heckel, Oskar Kokoschka, Otto Mueller and Egon Schiele. We are also continuing our involvement with women Expressionists, who have long been under-appreciated and therefore are still surprisingly accessible. These include Lea Grundig, Hannah Höch, Elfriede Lohse-Wächtler, Jeanne Mammen, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Alice Sommer and, naturally, Käthe Kollwitz. Although our interests have expanded organically over the years, the Galerie St. Etienne continues to cultivate the two areas--Expressionism and self-taught art--that have been our passion for more than six decades. The resulting depth of expertise is, we believe, as important in the new art market as it was in the old.